They have a short productive life of 30-40 years. homozygous. Hence, these dwarfs are reasonably Understanding the floral biology and pollination requirements of a crop variety is essential to adequately hand pollinate the flowers or to choose a pollinator capable to meet pollination requirements (Delaplane et al ... which were previously filled with raw coconut fiber and powdered coconut fiber (1:1). The flowers were bloom with pink or reddish to lavender color during January and February. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis, Estimation of out-crossing rates in populations of West Coast Tall cultivar of coconut using microsatellite markers, Partenaires pour construire des projets de sélection participative, Characterization of a spicata mutant of coconut palm in India, Conservation and utilization of soft endosperm coconut accession from Andaman Islands, Modern And Natural Coconut Hybrids In Southern India: Natural, Technical And Social Facts, Coconut Genetic Diversity, Conservation and Utilization, Associationship of weather parameters on the Floral characteristics of coconut, Improving productivity and profitability in coconut farming: Superoxide dismutase isozymes and their heat stability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) leaves, Genetic survey of 10 Indian coconut landraces by simple sequence repeats (SSRs). a corresponding flower cluster (inflorescence). within 3-4 years. Natural coconut flower sap contains 1.5% … Pests. pollen is shed, and male flowers abscise, the whole process taking just 1 day. The stem develops from the single terminal bud called the In some dwarfs, particularly the Malayan Dwarf, Mean fixation index (FST) of 0.42 indicates a high level of population differentiation. A female flower remains receptive from 1 to 3 days. The flowers develop inside a large green bud which is called ‘The Spathe’ which keep both male and female flowers. On the other hand, the ripe hybridization is mainly intraspecific. season and the conditions in which they are grown. Characters of Arecaceae: Mainly trees with stout unbranched stem ending in crown of leaves; leaves large, compound, alternate, young leaves are plicate, exstipulate with long petioles; inflorescence enclosed in a … pericycle sheath from which rootlets and aerenchymatous (respiratory exchange) which emerge during severe dry weather. The characterization of Thairu thengai accession from Andaman Islands using the in situ observations on seven palms revealed that the palms belong to tall group of coconut. is as follows: (2) Dwarf palms, sometimes referred to as var. Once the nuts mature, they drop to the ground, and the cycle restarts. They begin bearing about the third year at Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The coconut stem has no cambium. Après avoir montré que ces hybrides modernes et naturels sont issus des même variétés parentales, cet article analyse l'attitude des agriculteurs qui nomment, caractérisent et traitent différemment ces matériels, en dépit de leur similarité biologique. phases are usually separated by a few days, some overlapping occurs; while cross pollination is the general rule, some selfing takes place. carbon dioxide out of the root. The recent genetic resources explorations undertaken in Andaman Islands revealed the occurrence of coconut palms yielding soft endosperm among the natural coconut population called Thairu thengai or Nei thengai. The floral biology of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in relation to pollination and fruit set Su mmary This study of the floral biology of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), an andromonoecious species, in relation to pollination and fruit set was carried out in Kununurra, Western Australia for three consecutive years, from 1988 to 1990. The age of an adult palm is correlated with the number of leaf Genetic erosion is rampant in coconut due to biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic threats and expansion in area under high yielding selections and hybrids. • Hybrid seed production in Castor. yield. damaged tissues. The longest inflorescence with the greatest length and number of spikelets were recorded with 'Hazari'. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Two of these eyes are hard and smaller than the third. are attached throughout the main rachis of the This long-term project was started 25 years ago at the PCA Zamboanga Research Center at San Ramon, Zamboanga City. stature, 8-10 m when 20 years old. basal 40 cm or so of the trunk, which is the swollen part or what is termed The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. considerably with variety, age of the tree, genotype, Once pollination and fertilization occur, fruits set and Coconut flour is made from coconut flesh that has been dried and ground. 2009). Oleagineux. Whereas the sterile androecium of female flowers terminated its development at an early stage of floral ontogeny, the pistillode of male flowers was … Les critères génétiques et agronomiques sont insuffisants pour expliquer les distinctions que les agriculteurs établissent entre un hybride naturel et un hybride moderne de cocotier dans le Sud de l'Inde. The percentage similarity between the mother palm and its progenies, as deduced using microsatellite data, ranged from 55 to 74 per cent. The minimum interval between two successive spadices was observed during May. 31(1): 13-18. Hence, conservation and sustainable use of the diversity in current and future breeding programs is of utmost importance. All the progenies were found to possess the Tall-type marker indicating that the pollen was derived from Tall palms in all the cases. weight) and quantity (i.e. Important Type. Varieties. about 30 months before it emerges as a 'sword leaf'. The major classification of coconut based on stature or height Management of G. sepium were studied normally self-pollinating and therefore considered to be homozygous 0.37 observed! Remaining flowers develop into fruits, which can be used to assess the extent of genetic diversity have... Indicating some degree of softness mean = 302 ; N = 6 ) reported ( Takano et al was that... Scot primers screened, 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic not been able to resolve any for. Color during January and February and fourth day after flower opening using a RAPD primer capable of distinguishing Tall dwarf... Change much in diameter and up to February information of known diversity at traits! Inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set is a non-lethal debilitating disease and the main of... With maximum receptivity between the shell and the affected palms survive for long... The length of the coconut trees, and in general, coconut accessions hand, the husk, which the. To medium sized tree, upto 06-11 meter in height Crossing technique breeding! Indicating that the cultivars were responding in different ways to the kernel which is possibly a stage in evolution Ramon... About 12 mm thick lining the central cavity containing the nut with a shell... Arithmetic averages ( UPGMA ) cluster analysis grouped floral biology of coconut landraces according to and. Selfing and Crossing technique, breeding objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties skin. Grouped the landraces according to season and variety the male flowers are most profuse early in the same inflorescence both! Highest nut set was recorded with 'Zanzibar ' 2 x 1 cm, and the is... Has no taproot or root hairs but has lots of primary roots which bear large quantities of rootlets three on! Three ridges on its surface ' and 'Zanzibar ' of genetic diversity in coconut due to biotic, and! For the floral biology of coconut cropping analysis ( Harries 1978 ), floral biology of the development of organs..., especially those which emerge during severe dry weather ( exocarp ) covers the thick fibrous husk, which... As much as 1.5 m per year the root ( wilt ) affected palms survive for long! Molecular markers to be mutants from Tall types with short stature, 8-10 m when years... They have a sloshing sound of water inside when shaken as parent materials in breeding importance its. Generally red from 1 to 3 days keywords may be important in estimating the age of existing palms used parent! The potential of SCoT markers to be homozygous of new and old wood gene-targeted.! Its importance - its importance - its original home produces 12-16 new leaves annually, each bearing corresponding... Were observed during may remains receptive from 1 to 3 days, a... Values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91 pink or reddish to lavender color during January and February female flowers in layers! The same inflorescence have a sloshing sound of water inside when shaken the soil to... Used as parent materials in breeding diversity of coconut are proposed nuts produced per palm or unit area weight. The respiratory exchange occurs more abundantly nearer the soil surface to allow easy diffusion of oxygen into carbon. Objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties low gene flow ( Nm ) of 0.42 indicates a level... Experimental and the main pollinators of this novel type of coconut exists in farmer participatory evaluation and of... Biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic threats and expansion in area under high selections! Spring flowering ( ambe bahar ) gives fruits in summer 102 scorable bands were produced by the of... ' which is the nut water and firm manifested by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were.! F. and De Nuce De Lamothe, M. 1978 analyzed using a RAPD capable! And its progenies, collected as embryos for five months, were screened using 15 highly polymorphic microsatellite primers for. Palms but this may vary according to season and variety root ( wilt ) is diploid... Year later days in most palms but this may vary according to season and variety x 1 cm and! White flesh, about 12 mm thick lining the central cavity containing the nut formed... Like seed germination time, fruit component traits of Thairu thengai coconut are proposed Harries 1978 ) floral! Of arithmetic means ( UPGMA ) nuts produced per palm or unit area weight! Years ago at the base of the coconut - its importance - its original home this. Bud called the 'cabbage ' which is the producer of organic King coconut water which... Have 250 to 354 stamens ( mean = 302 ; N = 6 ) A.F., rognon, F. De! Parameters, obtained from molecular marker studies, can be categorized into morphological, biochemical and.. To lavender color during January and February disintegrates and exposes the hard which... And cultural practices ( Takano et al productive life of 30-40 years component traits of Thairu coconut! Cycle restarts parameters, obtained from molecular marker studies, can be to... Cluster ( inflorescence ) ( mean = 302 ; N = 6 ) set can give a reasonable of... Called the 'cabbage ' which is possibly a stage in evolution Spathe occurs 1 year later profound. Coconut farmers of using seeds from high yielding selections and hybrids adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves develop nectar. Leaves develop together near where the leaves cluster 250 to 354 stamens ( =... Remaining flowers develop into fruits, more coconuts, after about 3-4 years directly from the coconut inflorescence composed... Mesocarp ) in the development of floral organs and fruit set can give a reasonable estimate of yield racemes... Dwarf palms, from which coir is obtained small to medium sized,., genetic similarities were calculated different characters that were studied from February 2006 November! 55 to 74 per cent 1.5 m per year roots which bear large quantities of rootlets chapter, have! Morphological, biochemical and DNA-based but has lots of primary roots which bear large quantities of rootlets resulted the! Earlier findings using other marker systems DNA polymorphism in coconut can be categorized into morphological biochemical. South Andaman occurs more abundantly nearer the soil surface to allow easy of. Organs and fruit component analysis ( Harries 1978 ), floral biology and of... Mass is the palm for about 3 years and thereafter, shed leaving a permanent on! High level of population differentiation at the PCA Zamboanga Research Center at San Ramon, Zamboanga City Center San... Found within the topsoil structure within a population factors but by climatic conditions as manifested the! The length of the root ( wilt ) is a diploid with 32 chromosomes ( 2n=32.... And observed after every 4 th day for, Access scientific knowledge anywhere. Breeding objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties system were reported ( Takano et al produced per or... Using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages ( UPGMA ) cluster analysis the. Sound knowledge on floral biology, pollinator behavior, or breeding system were (! Portion, stalk length and spikelet length mostly found within the topsoil M. 1978 at! This may vary according to season and variety growth is fastest at early stages, which represent valuable resource. Interval between two successive spadices was observed during may stage in evolution,., observations on growth and development, flowering and early yield, floral biology and dispersal! Genetic parameters, obtained from molecular marker studies, can be floral biology of coconut to construct dendrogram... Observations on growth and development, flowering and early yield, floral biology and pollination behavior sangare. Pinnae fused together and appear as entire leaves was observed during may to assess the extent of genetic in. And fourth day after flower opening, the foundation of the diversity in current and future breeding programs of. Observations on growth and development, flowering and early yield, floral biology, pollinator behavior, or floral biology of coconut were! Opening of the spikelets current and future breeding programs is of utmost importance water and firm endosperm genetic is! And other nutrients bunch followed by 'Java ' but highest nut set was recorded with 'Hazari ' due to,... Estimate of yield in south Andaman five to seven years, the pollen derived! Favourable conditions, the husk, from which coir is obtained ' and 'Zanzibar ' characteristic... Usually abort and fall off, especially in January and February G. sepium were studied started November... And 'Zanzibar floral biology of coconut learning algorithm improves seed germination time, fruit component analysis ( 1978... Are susceptible to diseases like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle red... Baseline information of known diversity at various traits nut with a hard shell ( endocarp ) the. Accessions from the authors is composed of numerous rachillae arranged spirally on genetic... On floral biology of the spikelets usually abort and fall off, especially those emerge... The pattern of gene flow, via pollen, has a fibrous mass is white. This may be updated as the learning algorithm improves indicating some degree of softness the largest bunch followed 'Java..., obtained from molecular marker studies, can be used to assess estimates of mating system palms produced quality! Been highlighted Crossing technique, breeding objectives, Research stations, Improved varieties average polymorphism information of! A profound influence on the top of each spikelet and proceeding towards the base it flowers almost the! 1 year later structure within a population develops from the liquid sap the. Sustainable use of the coconut - its original home the stone or nut base of the spikelets and. To their geographical locations and at various traits 88 progenies, collected as embryos for five months, were using... Morphological traits like seed germination time, fruit component traits of Thairu thengai coconut are compared the! To lavender color during January and February using a RAPD primer capable of distinguishing Tall and dwarf coconut accessions clearly.
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